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The Herodium is located 7.5 miles south of Jerusalem. It is about 3.5 miles southeast of Bethlehem.
According to Josephus, a Jewish historian, it served as a palace/fortress for Herod the Great. Herod was buried here in 4 B.C. Later the Herodium served as a base for Jewish rebels during the first (A.D. 66-70) and second (A.D. 132-135) revolts against the Romans.