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This is a copy of the “Cyrus Cylinder” that is in the British Museum. It is covered with cuneiform text that describes Cyrus’ (Persian ruler 559–530 B.C.) capture of Babylon in 539 B.C. and describes his policy of tolerance towards conquered peoples.
Cyrus was the one who allowed Jews to return from Babylon to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem (2 Chron 36:23; Ezra 1:2–4; 7:1–5).